Kingdom’s that were lost after ww2

During the height of or perhaps, even before it all happened. The 2nd Great war was a test of endurance for many of Europe’s Kingdom’s and Monarchies. This did not include just Europe, all Monarchies and Kingdoms alike, during the 2nd World War also included those in other parts of the world.

To start, Italy being the most famous and well known. When Victor Emmanuel III became King of Italy on March 17, 1861. His reign became plagued with his inaction towards the rise of facism. When people were begging him to return from his vacation in Tuscany. While he was busy in Tuscany, enjoying himself, people in Rome were fearful of a coup from Mussolini. Even though he did eventually come, Victor Emmanual III likely was in contact with Mussolini before coming back to Rome. The King of Italy, unfortunately, was left unprepared by his father who was assassinated by an anarchist. Not realizing that the man whom the Italian King liked so much, that he also would read his newspaper “Popolo d’italia”, despised him greatly. The King’s inaction and ignorance to evil led to multiple deaths and imprisonment. And through this Evil, King Emmanuel invaded its neighbor, Albania and force it’s King to fight for its people’s preservation and It’s Kingdom. However, King Zog would eventually lose and be removed. The King would, with consent, join Mussolini to fight alongside the 3rd Reich which would mark Italy as being a member of the Axis power. The actions of fascism and Victor Emmanuel III willingness to continue working with the Nazi’s and fascism would lead the Kingdom of Italy to its eventual demise.

Next, Bulgaria. During the 2nd great war, the Bulgarian King Boris III sat on his throne after his father decidedly abdicated during Bulgaria’s defeat in WW2. Dealing with political instability and occasional border wars with the Greeks. Boris III would, with the support of the 3rd Reich, adopt a law that would target the very own people he, as a King, is obligated and is responsible to look after and protect. However, he did no such thing. Showing himself as a not true King, he would adopt a policy called “Law for Protection of the Nation ” which would revoke citizenship to Bulgarian jews, even if they’ve lived in Bulgaria for centuries, longer than other self-titled natives. Like Nazi Germany, the Bulgarian King would enact a series of restrictions that would exclude them from public service and politics, they would no longer be allowed to live freely anywhere, even if they had the wealth to live further away from conflict. They no longer had the right to economic means and were stripped and prevented from any and all professional activity and lastly, a complete removal of their homes, even if, again, they lived in Bulgaria for centuries and assimilated thoroughly into Bulgaria. Boris III, no longer became a King, in my opinion, when he pushed for such a policy. To go after one’s own citizens as King contradicts the obligations of the Crown. Because the Bulgarian King did what he did, he was given territories as compensation. However, he has proven himself a victim of evil and selfishness and shown that he is willing to betray his own people loyal to him, for territories that are arbitrarily drawn on a map. Thus, just like King Victor, would Boris III seal the fate of not just his Kingdom but his people as well.

Next up, Romania. Evolving from a personal union of two principalities(Which were Moldavia and Wallachia) and obtaining her independence from the Ottoman Empire after the war of the Romanian War of Independence. The Kingdom of Romania was new and was without political issues. During the beginning of the 2nd Great War. The Soviet Union was becoming a great threat and a worrisome enemy that needed to be dealt with either through war or through alliances. An unfortunate situation to be placed in. As of now, the only power close by that would be a wall against the Soviet Union’s incursion would be the 3rd Reich and so, to protect her territorial integrity . Romania joined Nazi Germany. However, the lack of faith towards each other and God and the willingness to dance with the devil would lead to King Carol being forced to transfer powers to Antonescu and eventually being forced to step down to bring his son, Michael who would himself eventually lead a coup against Antonescu but by then, it would be to late as the Soviet Union would soon march her armies into Romania. 

Next, Yugoslavia. With the King of Yugoslavia saying “Save Yugoslavia! & the Friendship w/ France!”. Was a statement that had historic meaning to the 1st Great War. Especially with France who had a long relationship with Yugoslavia. However, after WW1, many nations suffered and France was not immune to this. Yugoslavia had a hostile relationship with Italy and eventually Germany.  After annexing Austria,  would Germany neighbor Yugoslavia. The Royal Government of Yugoslavia under great pressure tried to delay the inevitable but with French capitulation, she was left alone. Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, through Germany supported individuals, would lead a coup against the Royal Crown and place Peter II with the Crown after proclaiming him of age. However, Hitler and his fierce Anti-Monarchical party would not honour the Tripartite Pact and bomb Belgrade, leading to the eventual capitulation of The Kingdom of Yugoslavia. There were attempts by those loyal to the Crown leading resistance but it was not enough to defend itself against the 3rd Reich and the growing dictatorial political groups that would further lead the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the nation itself into separation. 

To end, it’s an unfortunate fate that befalls Kingdoms all in part due to the King’s selfishness and fears. When they begin to lose themselves they’ve ultimately doomed there people that relies on them for guidance . To me, to lose the Crown would be the symbolic equivalent of God turning away from you after what has been done. 

Why I believe the Persian Monarchy has a chance of coming back

For the son of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi محمدرضا پهلوی‎, Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran رضا پهلوی‎‎; to establish the Pahlavi monarchy. He would need the military support of his own people willing to fight with him and the willingness of sacrifice for a better Iran. Take into account the countless people who walked into Cyrus tombs.

These uncountable people near the tomb of Cyrus. So much or to the Islamic Iranian government, to much people went there to celebrate him. So much so that they were building a fence to keep these men and women from giving there respects.

He would need these people!. For an example, they would need to follow him and commit through loyalty and hope. The same way we(French people) followed our leader Napoleon Bonaparte to the ends of the earth. There was a time when Napoleon Bonaparte escaped prison and came back to France. To quote some sources to help illustrate just how what I mean,

When troops deployed to stop the march of Napoleon’s force at Grenoble, Napoleon stepped out in front of them, ripped open his coat and said “If any of you will shoot his Emperor, here I am.”

Hamilton-Williams 1996, p. 42.

Immediately, people and troops began to rally to the returned Emperor. French police forces were sent to arrest him, but upon arriving in his presence, they kneeled before him. Triumphantly, Napoleon returned to Paris on March 20, 1815. Paris welcomed him with celebration, and Louis XVIII, the new king, fled to Belgium.

Durant, William James, et al. The Age of Napoleon: A History of European Civilization from 1789 to 1815. Simon & Schuster: 1975

Napoleon symbolically was backed by everyone in the country and were willing to commit with everything they had for a better France, that no such situation would not be seen till Adolf came. However, the son of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi has great ideologies that, I do not doubt Israel would return the favor and help him and his cause in taking back Iran. He has very strong values and I see him as the true leader, a true king. Being a considered, by Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and The World Values Network in his speech in the

Champions of Jewish Values International Awards Gala

They are those like us who believe in Human Rights, equality and who stand united against all kinds of discrimination. And they are those, like the Islamic Republic and ISIS’s of this world, who believe in the domination of a single, perverted ideology, at the expense of all those who do not belong in their “gang”.

Let me be clear: WE CAN NOT CO-EXIST… Period!

This is a real battle. Only one side will prevail. The ultimate question is: Are we as dedicated to fight for our shared values as the other side is? I say, we better be!

Sometime ago, the previous U.S President was sent a letter in regards to how he referred the Persian Gulf خلیج فارس as the “Arabian Gulf” The Two Words in Trump’s Speech That Really Enraged Iran. Through his public letter, Donald Trump was given a very mature response by the Prince:

The son of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi محمدرضا پهلوی‎, has all the qualities that would truly make Cyrus look at him as someone who should do whatever it takes to take back Iran if the chance ever comes. A great number of people would support him and help reestablish the Pahlavi dynasty! but more importantly, help bring Iran back to the country of greatness, strength and a nation that would bring back stability for the whole middle eastern region. But most importantly, Peace.

Difference between Edwardian Era and Victorian Era

Simply speaking, the reasoning behind the names “Victorian Era” & “Edwardian Era” is due to the fact when Alexandrina Victoria was made Queen on the 20th of June . Did a new era begin with Queen Victoria at its head and the same reasoning is implied into the “Edwardian Era”. When her son, nicknamed “Bertie” became King, did a new era with Edward VII (Edwardian Era, 1901) as the new King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland and Emperor of India began. 

The Edwardian Era: Meant a new way of seeing things, how people act. During his reign, Edward VII did not follow Queen Victoria’s strictly conservative way. Instead, he made it more lax when it came to how one conducts oneself. Additionally, during Edward’s reign, did his Kingdom begin witnessing the citizenry using invented tools (Car – Electricity, etc). With all of this happening, The United Kingdom was no longer the world in which Queen Victoria knew and was born in. Which is why, during the Victorian Era: You would not see many of the inventions being utilized as often as they were during Edward’s Reign. Which is why, it would make sense why these two eras are so drastically different.

Which is why, it’s quite true when Thomas Carlyle writes, “The time for levity, insincerity and idle babble & play-acting, in all kinds, is gone by, it is a serious, grave time.”

The Royal theory behind “Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary.”

The theory behind “Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary.” An English nursery rhyme that would eventually find itself being read by multitudes of people, was quite interesting and in fact, a very thought provoking theory was founded to be referencing Queen Mary and another interesting Monarch. For example, it is believed that the rhyme is referencing Queen Mary, Queen of Scotland who ruled for approximately 5 years. The way the oldest version goes, goes like this:

Mary, Mary, quite contrary,

How does your garden grow?

With silver bells, and cockle shells,

And pretty maids all in a row.

The theory behind this poem is that, the reference “How does your garden growreferences her rule or authority over Scotland. The 2nd reference is “Silver bells”, In Catholicism, Cathedral bells are often used. Another reference in this poem is the “Cockle shells” which references the unloyalty of her husband, James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. This is the same nobleman accused for the murder of Queen Mary’s 2nd husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Additionally, he is responsible for tricking the Queen of Scots by first lying to her about an imminent danger awaiting her, and to follow him to his castle located in Dunbar. However, she was taken prisoner by this nobleman and unfortunately raped to secure a marriage. And lastly, the line “And pretty maids all in a row” which would be referring to her ladies in waiting that were even nicknamed “The Four marys”.

Another theory behind this poem is now, the Queen of England, Mary Stuart or to be more precise, Mary I of England. In the Queen of England’s case. When the reference How does your garden grow” is uttered, it would be in reference to her lack of children that were to take her place as ruler. Next, is another reference which writes “Quite contrary”, which is referring the Queen of England’s vain effort in reversing the ecclesiastical changes effected by Henry The 8th, her father. Another is, Pretty maids all in a row” is meant to be in reference to the women Lady Jane Grey who also went by the name “9 days Queen”, due to the fact that she was Queen of England and Ireland for exactly 9 days, due to the Privy Council of England having a change of heart and declaring that Mary Tudor as Queen. And last but not least, the line “Rows & Rows” is referencing the executions of those who followed the Protestant faith.

Tudor History ╽15 Strange Facts You May Not Have Know About The Tudor Dynasty!

In today’s post I am going to be discussing some strange facts about the Tudor Dynasty. I thought it would be fun to use the same concept I did with our facts from U.S History post by inviting the group Everything Tudor Era to help compile this list. They were amazing and didn’t let me […]

Tudor History ╽15 Strange Facts You May Not Have Know About The Tudor Dynasty!

Kingdom of Hungary: St. Stephan

During the time in Europe where being a Christian was very important, Hungary, who was still seen as a pagan worshipping nation was often seen as troublesome by neighboring Christian nations. Who would make defense pacts in case they would get attacked by a non-christian nation such as Hungary. However, Geza, the Grand prince of the Hungarians who often was noted as cruel and strict wanted to make peace with Christians who were now granted the security and hospitality if they wished to enter his domains. Giving clerics and monks alike the “Germination of the seed of true faith sown in the garden of his heart”. 

A written document states that many of the inhabitants residing in Hungary were baptised. However, even though Geza and many others were baptised. Many, including Geza himself still followed the Pagan traditions. To outsiders looking in, it didn’t look honest or true. 

However, when he died. There became an issue involving St.Stephan and Koppany(Cupan), Duke of Somogy were in conflict. The familial feud between the two was that, since St.Stephan was trying to gain his right to the throne using the Christian law, Primogeniture. However, Koppany, did not agree with this law. His opposition to St. Stephan practicing the Christian law perhaps further reduced Koppany’s chances to the throne because in the eyes of those who were very pious. It’s only fair, by Christian law, that Stephan become King. To oppose this right would be opposing the Divine Right. It was St.Stephens Divine right to rule, not Koppany. Koppany was still following the traditional seniority law which to many others made them realize that Koppany was never truly Christian, since he still held old pagan customs. When St. Stephan eventually won this conflict, he was crowned King of Hungary, by none other then the representative of God himself, Pope Sylvester II. Thus began Hungary, as no longer a pagan nation but a Christian kingdom ruled by a Christian ruler, St. Stephen who finally established Hungary as a Christian Kingdom.

Royals that were paraded

Like an exotic animal to be shown in a cage for those to marvel at, victorious Kings has made parading defeated Monarchs as a way of showing their people a victorious King has brought with him, there enemy. Today, we’re going to read about the unfortunate cases of Royals being paraded for the enemy to look at in complete humiliation. 

 

Zenobia: Warrior Queen of Palmyra

queen-zenobia-with-soldiers

 

           The 1st individual is Septimia Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. A warrior Queen who had control of modern-day Syria, Iraq, and Egypt. She claimed herself as a descendant of Cleopatra, and though they’re no way for us to determine the validity of such claim. This most likely is more of a political act of justification for taking Egypt. This great warrior queen was married to a self-styled “King of Kings” King Septimius Odaenathus, the man who helped defeated the Persians and prevented there desire to conquer Rome’s eastern province. The Queen of Palmyra, Zenobia bore King Odaenathus, a son named Valballathus. His unfortunate demise came from a relative whose name was Maeonius; thus, consequently, the Queen, Zenobia, became regent until her son, Valballathus, would be of age to rule. She was, unfortunately, looking towards the desire to expand her empire; what this means is that during Rome’s crises, she would take advantage of the situation and would take Egypt and would focus her eyes towards more territorial expansion. According to the book “The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226-363, This beautiful woman is said to have the whitest teeth, that they believed her teeth to be pearls and a voice as clear as a man. Living in a world dominated by man, she needed to be strong like a man, drink with her generals, and “Hunted with the eagerness of a Spaniard.” Her demise came when her Roman Enemy, Aurelian, defeated her in a great clash; her mighty military was unfortunately not equipped to deal with the experienced roman legion. When she lost her battles with Rome, she was chained and brought to Rome, where Roman citizens awaited to see the famously defeated warrior Queen Zenobia. 

Princess Arsinoe IV of Egypt, sister of Cleopatra

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Princess Arsinoe IV of Egypt was the 4th of 6 children and was the youngest among the children of Ptolemy XII Auletes. During the Alexandrian war, Princess Arsinoe went to great lengths to lead the Army against her sister, who herself was in an alliance with Julius Caesar. However, all of her attempts proved futile. In 48, Caesar decided to capture several members of the Ptolemaic Royal families, including Arsinoe IV, but fortunately for her, she managed to escape thanks to her eunuch mentor, Ganymedes. Princess Arsinoe IV and Ganymedes were able to reach Achillas, the commander of the Egyptian Army, but her mentor and Achillas didn’t get along. So much so, that she ordered his execution and consequently having Ganymedes, the new commander of the Egyptian Army. As Ganymedes and Princess Arinsinoe IV of Egypt consolidated their forces together, they fiercely clashed with Caesar. The hope that perhaps Princess Arsinoe IV could have defeated Julius Caesar was in vain. With Princess Arsinoe IV defeated and Ganymedes executed, Julius Caesar would have Princess Arsinoe IV captured and brought to Rome where the Roman citizenry awaited for the purely humiliated Princess to be paraded in the streets.

Cleopatra VII Philopator

Cleopatra-and-Caesar

 

            Daughter of one of Alexander the Great’s great generals, Cleopatra was known for being a woman of exceptional beauty, exotic, and being an expert in seduction. Queen Cleopatra was known for speaking several languages, even the language of the people whom she would govern, which has gained her a very positive outlook from the Egyptians. Cleopatra was a woman who unfortunately was not well-liked by her brother, Ptolemy XIII, who went so far as to chase her out of Egypt where the princess gained refuge in modern-day Syria. She proved her strength and leadership and was able to muster a large army and lead them back to Egypt, which would begin the civil war in Pelusium. Cleopatra, a woman of exceptional beauty, went directly to Julius Caesar, who was in Alexandria. Cleopatra used her knowledge of Julius Caesar and gave him what he wanted, money for his return to Rome and debts paid, which were incurred by Auletes. Ptolemy XIII would soon realize that her sister, Cleopatra, was no longer alone and that his demise would quickly fall upon Julius Caesar’s sword. Julius Ceaser eventually fell in love with Cleopatra, and through this love did they both gain a child, Caesarion but horrible news would reach Cleopatra when Julius Caesar became assassinated. She would soon, fortunately, fall in love with another powerful man, Mark Anthony, who was currently in conflict within the triumvirate group. There were talks that Cleopatra sailed to Tarsus and fashioned herself in the robes of Isis, and Mark Anthony, who saw himself as the Dionysus, the Greek God, was seduced. They would eventually have children together, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene, and lastly, Ptolemy Philadelphos. Mark Anthony was in love with Cleopatra and so declared Caesarion as Caesar’s son and rightful heir; he also awarded land to each of the children of Cleopatra. Octavion claimed Mark Anthony was under a spell and control of Cleopatra, and so did many people in the Roman senate. This love affair between Cleopatra and Mark Anthony would, unfortunately, end in the Battle of Actium.

      Interestingly, there was a false rumor that Cleopatra killed herself, and Mark Anthony believed it and so wanted to join her in the afterlife, very similar to the tragic fate of Romeo and Juliet. The grieving Queen, Cleopatra, with great sadness, said a prayer and buried Mark Anthony knowing that she will soon meet him in the afterlife where he awaits her. Before Octavian went to capture Cleopatra, the princess locked herself, with her several of her most loyal servants, and killed herself. While she walks away in the spirit world with Mark Anthony, her kids were paraded in her place, and the Roman people celebrated Octavian’s conquest of Egypt. 

Cleopatra’s Forgotten Sisters: Part One

To Know Thyself

Many people know the story of Cleopatra VII whose lovers most famously included Julius Caesar and Marc Antony. What is less well known is the fate of her elder sister Berenice IV and her younger sister Arsinoe IV. Unfortunately, much like their sister Cleopatra VII, both young princesses came to untimely ends.

THE BACK STORY

www.colorado.edu/classics/clas1061/Graphics-Hellenisticworld FIGURE 1: PTOLEMATIC EMPIRE 240 BCE

The Ptolemaic dynasty, while an Egyptian dynasty, was of Greek origin. After Alexander the Great’s death his vast empire was divided among his generals (Figure 1).The region of Egypt was bestowed upon the general Ptolemy. And in 336 BCE he became the first ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ended in 31 BCE with the Cleopatra we know today.

THE NUCLEAR FAMILY

The last legitimate heir to the Ptolemaic dynasty was Ptolemy XI Alexander II. He was killed by his own people after…

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